Flash memory is a writable non-volatile memory?


Yes, Flash memories use EEPROM Data can be written and erased as many times as we wish. EEPROM are nonvolatile. Data is not lost when power is turned off.

A-23 is a valid C++ constant?


No, A-23 is not a valid constant. It contain a variable 'A'.

If is a valid C++ identifier?


Yes, If is a valid identifier but 'if' is not a valid identifier. 'If' is a reserve word.

TCP/IP is actually two protocols rolled into one?


Yes, it contains two protocols one is transmission protocol that deals with transportation of packets from source to destination (TCP). Other protocol is IP (Internet Protocol) which is specifically for transporting data through Internet.

When one needs to connect all the computers in one building, then it is preferable to use a LAN?


Yes, LAN is specifically designed to handle data transfer between computers which are geographically near (within usually 1 km radius). They transfer data through physical medium at high data rates and low error rates. Thus it is most suitable for connecting computers in a building.

Operating System acts as a resource manager for any computer system?


Yes, the function of operating system is to manage the resources (memory, processors, I/O systems, information etc.)

A C++ compiler actually translates a C++ source code into the equivalent machine code of the target CPU?


Yes, like any Compiler C++ compiler translates C++ source code into machine code of the target CPU.

C is a procedural programming language?


Yes, C uses procedures (functions and blocks) to implement code. Each procedure indicate steps that is to be followed to solve a given problem.

Unix is a multiuser operating system?


Yes, through multi-programming feature, multiple users can work on a UNIX machine at same time.

Pentium is a 32 bit machine because it has got a 32 bit Address Bar.


No. Pentium is a 32 bit machine indicate the number of data lines and internal register size are 32 bits. It can do operations (addition, subtraction etc.) on 32 bit operands.

What is Virtual Memory? What are the necessary layers of memory hierarchy that helps to create the virtual memory?


Virtual Memory is a memory management technique in which the computer user is given feeling that unlimited memory is available at his disposal for running programs. Here very large programs are run using small size physical memory. Large programs in secondary memory are divided into fixed size pages and available physical memory is divided into blocks. Block size and physical memory size is kept same. Few pages of program are loaded into the blocks and are executed. When new pages are required for execution they are loaded from secondary memory into one of the blocks replacing the earlier page stored in that block. Using this technique very large programs are executed using small size primary memories. To create virtual memory, two layers of memory is required. One is secondary memory to store large programs/data that is to be executed. Second layer is physical memory to store various pages that is needed currently for execention.

In segmented paged allocation, segmentation is used to facilitate sharing and protection. Paging is used to resolve the fragmentation and recomputing problems and demand paging eliminate the restriction on address space size. A segment table is used along with page tables. One page table is used for each segment and each segment have a corresponding segment page table entry. Using this segment table entry a page table is selected and various entries in that page table corresponds to various pages of that segment.

What are different passes of a compiler?


Various Passes of a Compiler are:

1. Lexial Analysis: This pass recognize the basic elements and creation of uniform symbols.

2. Syntax Analysis: This pass recognize the basic syntactic constructs through reductions.

3. Interpretation: This pass define exact remaining, creation of matrix and tables by action routines.

4. Machine Independent Optimisation: This pass creates a more optimal matrix.

5. Storage Assignment: This pass modifies the identifier and literal tables. It makes entries in the matrix that allow code generation to create code that allocates dynamic storage and that also allow the assembly phase to reserve the proper amount of static storage.

6. Assembly and Output: This pass resolves symbolic addresses and generate machine languages.

What is Formatting?


Formatting is the process of preparing a disk for write operation.

What is Windows 2000?


It is a single user operating system from Microsoft Corporation.

What is Tally 7.2?


Tally is an accounting application software.

What is Cache Memory?


A high speed memory that is placed between processor and main memory which work on the principle of locality of references.

What is NOR?


NOR is a digital gate whose output goes high only when all inputs are low.

What is Function Subprogram?


Function Subprogram is a group of statements which is evoked by other programs through its name. It is usually returns a single value.

What is FTP?


File Transfer Protocol is a protocol used for transfer file from one computer to another through network.

What is Desktop Printer?


Small high quality printers whose usage is user friendly is called Desktop Printer.

What is CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)?


Cathode Ray Tube is an output device used for display of data.

What is Cross Talk?


When two wires are closed and they run in parallel due to electromagnetic induction, data of one line is induced in other one. This is called Cross Talk.

What is Cross Compiler?


Cross Compiler is a Compiler that runs on one machine but translating programs written for another machine.

What is Short Integer?


Short Integer is a declaration that the variable named will have range between -128 to +127 only.

What is Attach?


Attaching is the process of mounting I/O devices in UNIX operating system.

What is ATM?


Asynchronous Transfer Mode is a network protocol in which data transfer rate is very high.

What is FAQ?


Frequently Asked Questions is the text material supplied by the manufacturers regarding the common doubts and their answers.

What is the Full Form of FORTRAN ?


It is a high level language that is suitable for scientific and engineering applications. It is useful where there are lot of equations to be solved.

What is Accumulator Register ?


Accumulator Register is a special register inside CPU in which one of the operand is to be placed before any arithmetic or logic information. Result after the operation is placed in accumulator by CPU.

What is Relational Algebra ?


Relational Algebra is a procedural querry language. It consists of a set of operations that take one or two relations as input and produce a new relation as their result.

What is a Simple Data Type ?


Simple data types are those data types that are directly implemented at processor level.

Eg: Integer, real number, character and pointers.

What is Access Time of a Disk ?


Access time of a disk is the time needed to read a fixed amount of information. It is the sum of rotational latency tr, and seek time ts and data transfer time tt.

i.e. ta=tr+ts+tt

What is Mesh Topology ?

Mesh Topology : This topology is suitable for sub nets. Here each node in network may be connnected to one or more nodes in the network.

If each node is connected to all other nodes in the network, then it becomes a completely connected mesh. Number of links need for each mesh network is large and not suitable for large network.
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